Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) can cause significant damage to concrete structures including bridges, roadways, airport runways, and nuclear power plants. When reactive aggregates are included in a mix, the presence of moisture initiates a reaction between the alkaline cement paste and reactive amorphous silica. The result is a gel that continues to dilate, which may cause cracks in the concrete mass. A research program was undertaken at the University of Toronto to investigate the effects of ASR on large-scale and small-scale concrete specimens. Several specimens were constructed using reactive (ASR) concrete and non-reactive (regular) concrete, and their short-term and long-term structural and mechanical behavior were compared. In this presentation, we will discuss the results of the research program, will offer best practices to minimize the risk of ASR in concrete during placement, and will propose several strategies for repair of structures that have been degraded due to ASR.
The application of nondestructive testing and evaluation for detecting existing defects and anomalies in concrete structures will be presented. Proper inspection and assessment is an integral part of a successful repair and rehabilitation. A well-defined inspection will help asset owners and their consultants in identifying the location and extent of existing defects, and enabling them in selecting proper repair materials and optimizing the area that needs rehabilitation. Moreover, NDT methods can help identify potential defects that are not visible to the naked eye, such as early-stage delamination, corrosion, and other durability related issues. In this presentation, several cases in Canada will be demonstrated, where the results of nondestructive testing and evaluation have been used to help consultants and contractors with cost-effective and reliable repair planning. Applications of ground penetrating radar, ultrasonic pulse echo tomography, seismic tomography, will be discussed.
Arrowhead Stadium originally opened in 1972 and is known to be the home to the Super Bowl Champions Kansas City Chiefs. Renovations of the stadium completed in 2010 included adding luxury suites on the club level of the stadium. This meant that the upper seating bowl not only had to seat more than 34,000 Chief fans but also act as a "roof" for the new luxury suites. The upper seating bowl comprises L-shaped precast concrete seating risers spanning from cast-in-place concrete raker beams and is divided by sixteen expansion joints. In 2018, the planning for the upper seating bowl waterproofing program began. The goal for the repair project was to implement waterproofing upgrades to protect the concrete for the next 10 years. To add to the challenge of a large-scale waterproofing and structural repair project, the construction efforts had to include coordination with simultaneous seat replacement to be completed in a single off-season.
This presentation looks at buildings that are new or being rehabilitated and the impact on making buildings more energy efficient. Starting with the 2012 IBC, and specifically the 2012 IECC portion of the building code and newer versions, the presentation will look at three aspects of the building envelope: Water Resistance, Air Leakage, and Moisture Transmission. It will then compare to identical buildings, the first built in 2000 and the second constructed in 2020. Illustrations and calculations will show how controlling air leakage can have an enormous impact on the service life of the structure, initial cost of construction, and on-going operations. Lastly, the presentation will look at how incorporating simple additions during the repair/rehabilitation process can have a positive impact on the environment as well as the building owner and the building’s constituents.
Arlington Memorial Bridge is a reinforced concrete spandrel arch bridge that connects Washington, DC and Virginia across the Potomac River. After over 85 years in service, the bridge started exhibiting signs of deterioration, including reinforcement corrosion. As part of a major rehabilitation effort to extend the bridge’s service life, targeted cathodic protection (CP) systems were installed in the arch cross-walls, floors, and under arches to mitigate and prevent corrosion. The implemented CP system consisted of galvanic and two-stage anodes to mitigate corrosion. Galvanic anodes were installed in the repair areas to prevent the ring anode affect and ensure a durable concrete repair. The two-stage anodes were installed in areas of concrete which were actively corroding without signs of concrete deterioration.
High Traffic Commercial/Light Industrial applications including light manufacturing, warehouse/big-box stores and high traffic retail applications present their own unique challenges in concrete repair. This presentation will review concrete repair options that a focused on those application that may require both fast application/turnaround time and strength/use durability for forklifts and trucks. High Traffic Commercial/Light Industrial applications including light manufacturing, warehouse/big-box stores and high traffic retail applications present their own unique challenges in concrete repair. This presentation will review concrete repair options that a focused on those application that may require both fast application/turnaround time and strength/use durability for forklifts and trucks. While there are many option for quick repair that can be open to use in a matter of hours, it is important to acknowledge he potential limitations of these options over the long term.
From the days of boiled Linseed oil, to the discovery of membrane forming cures, to the development of carbon dioxide injection; curing has evolved to accommodate the demands of the construction industry. This presentation will look back at the early standards developed by ASTM, contrasting them to the standards that are currently under consideration. There are many ways to cure concrete, this presentation will review the various product options framed in the context of weather. Lastly, the presentation will explore the various methods discussing the features and benefits of the common curing practices of today.
Dallas City Hall and Plaza are recognized by many due to the opening scenes of Dallas, the television show. What is less known is that the structure is a significant early example of bonded post-tensioned concrete which was utilized throughout the superstructure and two-story parking garage constructed beneath the plaza. Opened in 1977, the parking garage is a two-way bonded post-tensioned concrete slab with unreinforced drop panels supported by flared circular concrete columns. The garage covers two city blocks, extends under two adjacent multi-lane streets, and supports mature landscaping, pool, fountain, and up to 11’-0” of soil. In 2017, several square feet of a drop panel fell from the structure and subsequent observations found multiple locations of drop panel and column capital failures. A structural investigation including destructive and non-destructive testing, and analysis of the existing structure was undertaken to determine the cause of the failures.
Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and Systems (aka UAVs aka Drones) continues to be a hot topic for engineers and designers. Within the past 10 years, we have seen technology change how we live, work, play and learn. These advances in technology have enabled humans to be more efficient as well as socially and environmentally conscious and connected. Advances in engineering technology and efficiency have expanded structural engineer’s roles in inspection services. This presentation will highlight drone utilization for exterior surveys and inspection, impact on the built environment, and how drones will continue to influence in the future. This includes areas that are too dangerous for humans or structures where rigging can be difficult or impossible as well as the cost benefits of using a drone. The presentation will also delve into the effectiveness and appropriate applications of drone usage, specifically for hands-on applications.
Two projects will be explored in this presentation. The first is a concrete structure which for 20 years was exposed to extreme heat. The second is a structure which was exposed to extreme vibrations. Both these structures were integral parts of manufacturing processes and required limited down time to repair. The questions needing to be answered were: what is the condition of the existing concrete and what are the repair options for these structures. We turned to non-destructive techniques to evaluate these structures. Non-destructive techniques can provide insight into structures when accompanied by experienced engineers and petrographic analysis. Repair options were provided at the end of our evaluation leading to reduced down time and well-planned repairs.